The use of cyberspace by terrorist organizations for command and control activities, recruitment and the dissemination of training materials is of on-going concern for state actors. This is especially true because the nature of cyberspace makes efforts to limit and/or eliminate it exceedingly difficult. With the emergence of non-state actors such as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) openly using cyberspace to spread its ideology and activities, other non-state actors such as the hacktivist group Anonymous have declared their intention to attack them anywhere they find them in cyberspace. This paper initially examines the cyberspace activities and capabilities of ISIS and Anonymous, and their roles and relationship as non-state actors. We then explore the notion of applying just war theory to non-state actors in self-defense, and propose a number of likely outcomes from our analysis.
Colarik, Andrew and Ball, Rhys
"Anonymous Versus ISIS: The Role of Non-state Actors in Self-defense,"
Global Security and Intelligence Studies: Vol. 2
, Article 4.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.apus.edu/gsis/vol2/iss1/4
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