The Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire endured almost a thousand years longer than its Western Roman counterpart. Central to the longevity of the Byzantine Empire was its state intelligence gathering capabilities; but what were those capabilities and how were they organized? Answering these questions will require discussion of the challenges conducting Byzantine studies using secondary sources, literature review of English-language intelligence sources and qualitative analysis to summarize the structure and function of the Byzantine state intelligence apparatus. The Empire endured as long as it did due to a decentralized intelligence apparatus that could nevertheless be undermined by corruption and treason.
Hibbard, Scott D.
"Defenders of the Empire: The Byzantine State Intelligence Communications, Agent, and Intelligence Management Apparatus,"
Saber and Scroll: Vol. 2
, Article 5.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.apus.edu/saberandscroll/vol2/iss2/5
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