One-third of all college students leave their institution after the first year. As exponential growth continues at online institutions of higher education, it is vital to uncover factors that contribute to student success and therefore impact persistence and matriculation. The Community of Inquiry framework includes three presences, teaching, cognitive, and social designed to assess the educational experience of the online learner. In this study, approximately 113,000 cases from a large national fully online university were examined to determine if student characteristics, e.g., student gender, ethnicity, and age, are a factor in the level of the three presences. Multiple semester sessions were analyzed across curricular areas. Results and recommendations are discussed.
Gibson, Angela M.; Ice, Phil; Mitchell, Rob; and Kupczynski, Lori
"An Inquiry into Relationships between Demographic Factors and Teaching, Social, and Cognitive Presence,"
Internet Learning: Vol. 1
, Article 2.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.apus.edu/internetlearning/vol1/iss1/2
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