Given advancements in technology, online learning environments have evolved from less engaging modes of delivering course content to creating a platform where learners have the opportunities to engage in active learning experiences. It is therefore beneficial to examine the views and perspectives of researchers, who view online courses as indispensable in modern educational systems and have contributed useful strategies and ideas of creating engaging online classes. The purpose of this study was to establish factors identified in previous studies that positively affect learners’ engagement in virtual learning environments. The focus of the literature review was to highlight teacher presence and teacher immediacy in online class settings. Both hard copy and online searches generated relevant articles depicting various online class engagement strategies. The findings of the study suggest that teaching presence and teaching immediacy can influence learners’ cognitive and affective learning experiences. The paper has implications for professional education in online teaching and learning and for educators in general. The authors identify future research areas that should contribute to the progression of the field of online learning literature in terms of teacher presence and teacher immediacy.
Chakraborty, Misha and Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia
"Strategies for Virtual Learning Environments: Focusing on Teaching Presence and Teaching Immediacy,"
Internet Learning: Vol. 4
, Article 2.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.apus.edu/internetlearning/vol4/iss1/2
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