Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)

Program Name

Homeland Security

Capstone Instructor

Dr. Kathryn Lambert


The CARVER matrix, MSRAM, and ORM contribute accurate risk assessments; however, the current risk methodologies are not readily replicated for use by the first-responders responsible to react to mass casualty events. The intention of this work is to contribute a singular risk assessment methodology to be utilized by first-responders prior to and during a potential mass casualty event that may be replicated with uniformity across the nation. First-responders will be interviewed to ascertain levels of risk perception and previous research will be analyzed in order to form the hybrid-risk assessment for first-responders. The end result is the Bruno Method, a First-Responder Risk Assessment.



*Please note that this citation may not be appropriate for your discipline.
To locate the correct citation style for APUS programs and receive citation help, visit